## Tuesday, July 2, 2013

### Nigeria

In the world, the first town is Tokyo, the second is Bombay and the third is Lagos
(in Nigeria; city =10millions and with "villages" around Lagos : 22millions;
Lagos has grown from about 300,000 in 1950 to these estimated values today then its is the fist town for the growth).

The population of Nigeria is between 160 (Banque mondial, 2011) and 180 millions.
Area : 923,768 km2 (32nd)

----------brief history

The people of Nigeria have an extensive history, and archaeological evidence shows that human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BC. The Benue-Cross River area is thought to be the original homeland of the Bantu migrants who spread across most of central and southern Africa in waves between the 1st millennium BC and the 2nd millennium AD.

Now Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world with a population of over 160-180 million. The country is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is one of the fastest growing in the world with the International Monetary Fund projecting growth of 9% in 2008 and around 10%/yr now...

The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th century respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement dates back to the 9th century.Ifẹ produced terracotta and bronze figures, and Ọyọ once extended from western Nigeria to Togo. The Kingdom of Benin is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further.

The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people started in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. It is one of the oldest kingdoms in Nigeria. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan; they trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. The oldest pieces of bronzes made out of the lost-wax process in West Africa were from Igbo Ukwu, a city under Nri influence.

In the 16th century, Spanish and Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin trade in Nigeria, in the port they named Lagos and in Calabar. The Europeans traded goods with the peoples of the coast. Soon they also negotiated for a portion of the existing African slave trade. Traditionally, peoples captured in war were made slaves by the conquerors. Usually they were taken back to the conquerors' territory, put to work and sometimes acculturated and eventually absorbed into the other culture. When the Europeans entered the trade, they transported slaves mostly to the Americas to work as laborers. Particularly in what became the United States,[citation needed] slavery became a permanent racial caste to which people of African descent were confined. The demands of the slave trade produced a greater market in slaves than had existed before. Nigerian ethnic groups were transported to the Americas and the Caribbean as part of the African diaspora of slavery.

Since this period, the link with Europe and USA is strong despite post-colonization.

REF:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_Nigeria
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigeria
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_anthropology
• Human behavioral ecology, the study of behavioral adaptations (foraging, reproduction, ontogeny) from the evolutionary and ecologic perspectives, (see behavioral ecology). Human adaptation, the study of human adaptive responses (physiologic, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses and variation.