Sometimes I have to put text on a path

Friday, July 5, 2013

Benin-City and Edo State in Nigeria

Now Benin City, is a city of population of 2millions and the capital of Edo State (3.5millions; 18.8km2, Min.183 m – Max. 610m) in southern Nigeria.

The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria.
 - 1180–1246 Eweka I
 -      Oba Ewuare (also Ewuare the Great) was the king of the Benin Empire from 1440 until 1473. Ewuare became king in a violent coup against his brother Uwaifiokun which destroyed much of Benin City. After the war, Ewuare rebuilt much of the city of Benin, reformed political structures in the kingdom, greatly expanded the territory of the kingdom, and fostered the arts and festivals. He left a significant legacy and is often considered the first King of the Benin Empire.
 - 1888–1914 Ovonramwen (exile 1897)
 - 1979– Erediauwa I (post-imperial)

max:
Area
 - 162590,000 km²

Around 1470, Ewuare changed the name of the state to Edo.

The Portuguese visited Benin City around 1478 (first explorer) -1485 http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/exhibitions/benin/artwork/189503).

Benin grew rich during the 16th and 17th centuries due to the slave trade with the Dutch and the Portuguese, as well as through the export of tropical products. The Bight of Benin's shore was part of the "Slave Coast", from where many West Africans were sold to slave traders who enticed them to sell able-bodied men into bonded servitude. In the early 16th century the Oba sent an ambassador to Lisbon, and the King of Portugal sent Christian missionaries to Benin. Some residents of Benin could still speak a pidgin Portuguese in the late 19th century.

Benin resisted signing a protectorate treaty with Britain through most of the 1880s and 1890s. However, after Benin discovered Britain's true intentions, eight unknowing British representatives, who came to visit Benin were killed. As a result a Punitive Expedition was launched in 1897. The British force, under the command of Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, razed and burned the city, destroying much of the country's treasured art and dispersing nearly all that remained. The stolen portrait figures, busts, and groups created in iron, carved ivory, and especially in brass (conventionally called the "Benin Bronzes") are now displayed in museums around the world.

-----------Universities
The University of Benin, Benin City, the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, the Igbinedion University, Okada, and the Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, the Federal Polytechnic Auchi, Auchi are among the institutions of higher learning located in Edo State.

------------
The land area now known as Edo state. Located in what is called south-south part of Nigeria or the Delta region, has a long history of civilization. It is partly what remains of the once powerful and famous imperial Benin kingdom one of the most powerful Africa Empires during 15th and 16th century. The body of water called the bight of Benin and Dahomey the former French colony now called Republic of Benin derived their names from the famous imperial Benin kingdom. According to Seo Ogbonmwan "they acknowledges that we were Benins and lived in Benin City long before them hence they visited the palace of our Oba in Benin City for consultation before their name change in 1975 from Republic of Dahomey to the People's Republic of Benin}".The Benin Empire authority and influence spreading to the coast of Benin republic, the Niger delta, the north west of Niger River and Onisha in the east. Benin City now serving as the headquarters of Oredo Local Government Area and the capital of Edo state was the power-house, seat of government and the capital of the ancient Empire .It's also the origin and ancestral home of all the descendants of ancient Benin kingdom. The Edo people pride themselves on their wealth of history and civilization. The arts of Benin Kingdom are global brand. Benin artifacts are among the most exquisite and coveted in world's history which represents the earliest civilization among black specifically Africans. The Benin Kingdom is the fourth earliest known civilization recorded by historians, archaeologists and anthropologists.

Although Benin Empire rise and fall like all great Empires, lost it imperial powers it survived attacks and occupations even when many could not. According to the eminent Benin writer Naiwu Osahon "The spendour of Edo civilization continues to this day to astound and exited the world.  Benin artifacts are among the most exquisite and coveted in world's history and the kingdom of Benin remains famous for its sophistication in social engineering and organization.  The Benins Obaship institution is still one of the world's most revered apart from being one of the most ancient". The ancient kingdom was able to bring together modernity and tradition in perfect harmony a formula that has worked magic for more than a century; After the fall to the British forces in 1897AD.
Exactly how,if,were or when the Edos migrated to this region is hard to establish. As prince E.Eweka put it "No one is really certain about the exact origin of the Edo people whose origin appears to have been lost in myths and legends of the distant past". What is not in doubt is that Linguistic evidence suggests that this land area have been occupied by The Igodomigodo {Edo-speaking groups} for thousands of years and Edo {Benins} civilization has grown over a period of some 6000 years if not more. The Edo language is part of the Kwa-Niger group of languages according to Linguist.

Edo State is the home and cradle of arts, culture and bronze casting as well as wood works in Africa. The state is showered encomiums for its splendour, excellence and creative art works in addition to its fame of being the tourists delight and investors destination. Tinged with the traditional Edo hospitality. The people are enlightened, warm and friendly ever willing to help. Edo state 18 Local Government Areas also have a wealth of both natural and cultural heritage. Strolling through picturesque historical villages or enjoying an excellent meal with tradition dishes are reason enough to come to the region.The state's sprawling tourism assets-ranging from cultural tourism, eco- tourism, historical tourism, sports tourism to economic tourism.

Benin kingdom/Edo State has become a year-round tourist attraction thanks to the many inland and riverside tourism option available to visitors. More than one hundred major festivals are celebrated in the state between September and March every year. Almost three hundred and sixty-five sunny days a year and an average temperature of 18 degrees are guarantee that each corner of the state will be wonderful to visit throughout the twelve months of the year. With an endless list of tourist activities you can be sure that your holiday to Benin kingdom/Edo state will be an unforgettable memories

do State Facts:
The State Name: Edo State of Nigeria {The Heart Beat Of The Nigeria}
State capital: Benin City
Government: Republic
Demonym: Edolite
Executive State Governor: Adams Aliu Oshiomhole
Deputy State Governor: Pius Egberanmwen Odubu
Chief Justice: Cromwell Osamwonyi Idahosa
Speaker of the House: Uyigwe Oghogho Igbe
Administrative Structure:Presidential/Federalism; Federal, State, Local Govt.
Land Area: 19,794 km2
Language: Edo, pidgin English, English {official}
Ethnic Configuration: Benins, Akoko-Edo, Etsako, Ishan and Owan
Population: 3,218332 {2006 National Census}
Electricity: 240v 50Hz
Weights & Measures: Metric
Currency: Naira
phone code: +234 {Mobile Phone Line} +234-52 {House Phone Line}
Religion: Predominantly Christians Followed By Traditional Religion And Islam
{Based On Freedom Of Worship And Separation Of State And Religion}
Date Created: 9th August 1963 Split into Edo & Delta on 27th August 1991
Vaccination: As in all tropical countries visitors to Edo state have to be vaccinated against yellow fever and meningitis. Malaria tablets are highly recommended.
Ancient Benin kingdom {Edo Nation}Facts:
Name: Benin Kingdom {Edo Nation}
Form Of Government : Monarchial System
Demonym: Benins
Brand : The Benin Arts {Global} Home to the oldest church in Nigeria
Royal Colour: Ododo {Red}
Kingdom Capital : Benin City
The Monarch & Spiritual Head : Oba Erediauwa
The Senior Queen{OIoi}: Esther Erediauwa
Second in Command & the kingdom Prime Minister : Chief S.U.Igbe
Crown prince : Eheneden Erediauwa {Edaiken of Uselu}
The Four cardinal Chiefs{Ikadele}:Igbe, Edebiri, Igho-Osagie & Ozibo-Esere
Head of Royal Defence Forces: Edogun (Ceremonial)
The Chief priest : Isekhure
Head of the Royal police Forces,Land and Infomation:Okavbiogbe{Ceremonial}
Head of the Royal Brozen Casters: Ine Nigun
Head.of keepers of royal regalia and wardrobe: Uwangue
Head of royal household and worker: Esere
Head of the Royal carvers: Eholo
Head of the Royal Bards: Odionwere
Language: Edo, pidgin English, English{Official}
Religion : Predominantly Evangelical Christians and Traditional Religion
Ethnic Configuration: ( The Igodomigodo {ancient}) (Edos)( Benins)
Land Area: 10,956 km2 (Estimate)
Population: 1.6 Million (Estimate)
Date Created : More than 6000 years (Linguistic evidence suggests)
Imperial period: 1440AD-1897AD
Post-Imperial: Fall to the British forces in 1897AD

REF:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edo_State,_Nigeria
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benin_City
http://www.edoworld.net/Tourism.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ewuare
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benin_Empire

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Benin_(Nigeria)
http://www.uniben.edu/abstracts
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrose_Alli_University
http://www.aauekpoma.edu.ng/content/blogcategory/59/31/
(no list of publications)

private universities:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbinedion_University

http://auchipoly.edu.ng/index/research

Tuesday, July 2, 2013

Nigeria

In the world, the first town is Tokyo, the second is Bombay and the third is Lagos
(in Nigeria; city =10millions and with "villages" around Lagos : 22millions;
Lagos has grown from about 300,000 in 1950 to these estimated values today then its is the fist town for the growth).

The population of Nigeria is between 160 (Banque mondial, 2011) and 180 millions.
Area : 923,768 km2 (32nd)


----------brief history

The people of Nigeria have an extensive history, and archaeological evidence shows that human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BC. The Benue-Cross River area is thought to be the original homeland of the Bantu migrants who spread across most of central and southern Africa in waves between the 1st millennium BC and the 2nd millennium AD.

Now Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world with a population of over 160-180 million. The country is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is one of the fastest growing in the world with the International Monetary Fund projecting growth of 9% in 2008 and around 10%/yr now...


The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th century respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement dates back to the 9th century.Ifẹ produced terracotta and bronze figures, and Ọyọ once extended from western Nigeria to Togo. The Kingdom of Benin is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further.

The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people started in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. It is one of the oldest kingdoms in Nigeria. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan; they trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. The oldest pieces of bronzes made out of the lost-wax process in West Africa were from Igbo Ukwu, a city under Nri influence.

The people traded overland with traders from North Africa for centuries.

In the 16th century, Spanish and Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin trade in Nigeria, in the port they named Lagos and in Calabar. The Europeans traded goods with the peoples of the coast. Soon they also negotiated for a portion of the existing African slave trade. Traditionally, peoples captured in war were made slaves by the conquerors. Usually they were taken back to the conquerors' territory, put to work and sometimes acculturated and eventually absorbed into the other culture. When the Europeans entered the trade, they transported slaves mostly to the Americas to work as laborers. Particularly in what became the United States,[citation needed] slavery became a permanent racial caste to which people of African descent were confined. The demands of the slave trade produced a greater market in slaves than had existed before. Nigerian ethnic groups were transported to the Americas and the Caribbean as part of the African diaspora of slavery.

Since this period, the link with Europe and USA is strong despite post-colonization.


REF:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_Nigeria
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigeria
---------------------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_anthropology
  • Human behavioral ecology, the study of behavioral adaptations (foraging, reproduction, ontogeny) from the evolutionary and ecologic perspectives, (see behavioral ecology). Human adaptation, the study of human adaptive responses (physiologic, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses and variation.

GoogleServe 2013, google and help : more than 8,500 Googlers from 75+ offices participated in 500 projects

Every year in June comes a week where Googlers around the world stop reviewing code, ignore their inboxes and leave their cubicles behind to participate in GoogleServe, our global week of service. 

Not only was this our largest GoogleServe to date, but it was also one of the more unique, as many projects were designed to expand the notion of what it means to give back to the community. Here’s a glimpse at some of what we were up to this year:

  • In Thimphu, Bhutan, Googlers led a workshop about media literacy at the Bhutan Centre for Media and Democracy helping youth prepare to participate in shaping the future of this young democracy.
  • Googlers in Mountain View, Calif., created a bone marrow donation drive and partnered with the Asian American Donor Program to raise awareness about the need for more donors from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds.
  • Googlers from our Hyderabad, India office volunteered at Sri Vidhya's Centre for the Special Children, helping children who suffer from a wide range of cognitive disabilities to learn how to identify colors, write their own names, and prepare meals for themselves.
  • A team of Googlers walked the New York, N.Y., streets gathering information to improve AXS Map, a crowd-sourced platform for mapping wheelchair accessibility which is populated with data from Google Maps and Google Places APIs.
  • In Lagos, Nigeria, Googlers mentored entrepreneurs at Generation Enterprise, a small business incubator that equips at-risk youth to start sustainable businesses in slum communities.
  • In Randwick, Australia, Googlers taught computer and Internet skills with the Australian Red Cross Young Parents Program which aims to develop the capacities of young parents to live independently and to parent successfully.
  • A group of gourmet Googlers cooked a meal for families with children undergoing cancer treatment with Ronald McDonald House in London, U.K.
  • Googlers tutored and mentored youth in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with the Dignity For Children Foundation.
  • Googlers partnered with Un Techo Para Mi País to help build a new house for a family living below the poverty line in Bogota, Colombia.
  • In Dublin, Ireland, Google engineers taught youth how to program interactive stories and games with Scratch in partnership with Coder Dojo.

REF: http://googleblog.blogspot.fr/2013/06/googleserve-2013-giving-back-on-global.html