Some popular file formats:
Latitude and longitude are expressed in decimal degrees using the WGS 84 datum. Elevation is recorded in meters. Dates and times are not local time, but instead are Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) using ISO 8601 format.
Find your references in any number of formats:
http://spatialreference.org/ref/ it's a listing of spatial references (EPSG) and an interface to search for spatial references. EPSG codes are numeric codes associated with coordinate system definitions. For instance, EPSG:4326 is geographic WGS84.
Projections (a mathematical transformation of the surface of a sphere (3D) onto a 2D plane) are ordered roughly chronologically by type: http://www.radicalcartography.net/?projectionref
Spherical Mercator (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercator_projection) is used to describe the PROJECTION used by many commercial API providers.
Proj4 is a library for projecting map data (used by MapServer, GDAL and a multitude of other Open Source GIS libraries): http://trac.osgeo.org/proj/
for all standards: http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards
APR – ESRI ArcView 3.3 and earlier project file
MXD – ESRI ArcGIS project file, 8.0 and higher
SHP – ESRI shapefile
Shapefiles spatially describe geometries: points, polylines, and polygons and associated attribute information. A shapefile is a digital vector storage format. It was introduced with ArcView GIS version 2 in the beginning of the 1990s.
DEM – USGS DEM file format:
Sources for USGS DEMs:
http://www.geobase.ca/geobase/en/data/cded/index.html Review (in english and french; download and view) a detailed description of the Canadian Digital Elevation Data. Product specifications, metadata and other supporting documentation are also available.
obtain DEM’s via the National Eelevation Dataset(NED) server at: http://ned.usgs.gov
E00 – ARC/INFO interchange file format
GeoTIFF – Geographically located raster data
GeoTIFF is a public domain metadata standard which allows georeferencing information to be embedded within a TIFF file (6.0). http://trac.osgeo.org/geotiff/
World TIFF – Geographically located raster data: text file giving corner coordinate, raster cells per unit, and rotation
TAB – MapInfo Table file format
It's a geospatial vector data format.
DTED – Digital Terrain Elevation Data
It's a standard of digital datasets which consists of a matrix of terrain elevation values. This standard was originally developed in the 1970s to support aircraft radar simulation.
The GeoJSON format specification was finalized in June 2008.
In fact, every GeoJSON data structure is also a JSON object, and thus JSON tools can also be used for processing GeoJSON data.
Spatial data format types supported in GeoJSON include points, polygons, multipolygons, features, geometry collections, and bounding boxes, which are stored along with feature information and attributes. The geometries and their properties will have a parent object.
GeoJSON also allows specifying a geographic coordinate system, using the OGC crs (coordinate reference system) property (preferred) or with an EPSG code. If a crs is not defined, GeoJSON will use the WGS84 geoid by default.
GeoJSON is supported by numerous mapping and GIS software packages. Google maps, google maps api...use JSON
As RSS and Atom become more prevalent as a way to publish and share information, it becomes increasingly important that location is described in an interoperable manner so that applications can request, aggregate, share and map geographically tagged feeds.
There are currently two encodings of GeoRSS, Simple and GML (GeoRSS Geography Markup Language (GML)):
GeoRSS-Simple is meant as a very lightweight format that developers and users can quickly add to their existing feeds. It supports basic geometries (point, line, box, polygon) and covers the typical use cases when encoding locations.
GeoRSS GML is a formal GML Application Profile, and supports a greater range of features, notably coordinate reference systems other than WGS-84 latitude/longitude.
Both formats are designed for use with Atom 1.0, RSS 2.0 and RSS 1.0.
Blogger and geoRSS: http://bloggerindraft.blogspot.com/2008/12/new-feature-geotagging.html
-XML: SVG - Scalable Vector Graphics is an XML format. I think that this file format must be in this GIS list because may map servers use this format and all modern browsers use this format.
better SVG graphics rendering engine: http://antigrain.com/svg/index.html
(MapServer 5.0+ can use this engine; it supports sub-pixel anti-aliasing, as well as many more features).
look also the "svg" category of this blog ;)
-XML-based interchange format: GPX or GPS eXchange Format
GPX – XML-based interchange format
It describes waypoints, tracks, and routes.
A collection of points (with no sequential relationship) is deemed a collection of individual waypoints.
An ordered collection of points may be expressed as a track or a route. Tracks are a record of where a person has been (with timestamp (because someone is recording where and when they were there)) and routes are suggestions about where you might go in the future...
View the official site: http://www.topografix.com/gpx.asp
-XML-based interchange format: KML
KML – Keyhole Markup Language, XML-based
The KML file specifies a set of features (place marks, altitude, images, 3D models, polygons, textual descriptions, camera view...). Each place always has a longitude and a latitude.
KML files are distributed in KMZ files, which are zipped files with a .kmz extension.
Developer's Guide: http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/topicsinkml.html
Google Maps supports the following KML elements (that is, KML queries in the Search box and GGeoXml objects in the Maps API):
- Descriptive HTML
- Entity replacement via
- KMZ (compressed KML, including attached images)
- Polylines and polygons
- Styles for polylines and polygons, including color, fill, and opacity
- Network links to import data dynamically
- Ground overlays and screen overlays
This list does not apply to Google Earth's export to Google Maps, My Maps import, or My Maps export to Google Earth.
differences between maps and earth for KML: http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kmlelementsinmaps.html
Maximum uncompressed KML file size=10MB.
Maximum number of Network Links=10.
convert GIS data to KML files
You can import GIS Data and file (ESRI Shape, MapInfo .tab data; GeoTIFF, or other raster dataset) into Google Earth Pro so that it can be used as part of your Google Earth visualizations: http://earth.google.com/outreach/tutorial_importgis.html. If you have Google Earth Pro, you can import many kinds of GIS data directly using the methods described in this tutorial. If you are using the free version of Google Earth, there are other tools for converting GIS data to KML.
ESRI ArcGIS and MapInfo, have tools to export GIS data into KML format (for use in Google Earth).
ogr2gui (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ogr2gui/): a free utility that converts many formats, including shapefiles to KML.
shp2kml (http://www.zonums.com/shp2kml.html): a free utility that converts shapefiles to KML.
MapWindow GIS has Shape2Earth (http://shape2earth.com/default.aspx), a tool for converting GIS data to KML.
ESRI ArcGIS contains tools in the ArcToolbox (Conversion Tools > To KML) for converting vector and raster GIS data to KML.
Arc2Earth (http://www.arc2earth.com/) is an extension for ArcGIS that converts GIS data to KML. The Arc2Earth Community Edition (http://www.arc2earth.com/communityedition/) is a free tool that has lower limits than the full version.
MapInfo Professional has a MapInfo Professional Google Earth Link Utility: http://mapinfo-to-google-earth-tm-export-utilit.software.informer.com/
KML and Spreadsheet Mapper
How to enter data in an on-line spreadsheet to generate a set of placemarks in Google Earth and Maps. Google Docs' web-based, collaborative editing allows your team members to simultaneously enter data and instantly publish updates:
KML and Fusion Table
Because Fusion Tables also supports visualizing your data on maps, it is an alternative to Spreadsheet Mapper: http://earth.google.com/outreach/tutorial_fusion_sample.html
Biking and Hiking trails from MTBGuru.com:
a scientific paper: Hector Gonzalez, Alon Halevy, Christian S. Jensen, Anno Langen, Jayant Madhavan, Rebecca Shapley, Warren Shen (2010). "Google Fusion Tables: Data Management, Integration and Collaboration in the Cloud". SoCC'10. ACM:
Fusion Tables supports a number of data formats:
Comma-separated files (.csv) - Up to 100 MB
Microsoft Excel files (.xls, .xlsx) - Up to 1 MB
OpenDocument Spreadsheet (.ods) - Up to 1 MB
Keyhole Markup Language (.kml) - Up to 100 MB
Data already in a Google Spreadsheet
If you have datasets in Excel or Open Office Spreadsheets that are larger than 1MB, save them as CSV files to take advantage of the larger 100MB limit!
Manage your Data with Open Data Kit Aggregate:
Open Data Kit (ODK) is a suite of tools that allows data collection using mobile devices and data submission to an online server, even without an Internet connection or mobile carrier service at the time of data collection. Once you've collected data in the field with ODK Collect, you can upload and manage your data using ODK Aggregate. ODK Aggregate is the intermediary server storage platform that accepts the data and can send it on to external applications, if desired. ODK Aggregate also allows you to download your datasets in aggregated formats, such as one .csv file. ODK Aggregate allows you to use Google's AppEngine hosting platform (see many post of this blog) for managing your collected data online.
------------freeware and set of library (converters; filters)
"data conversion" database:
MapTools Packaged Tools and Utilities:
a list of bookmarks:
GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstraction Library) is a multi-format raster reading and writing library (it is used as the primary mechanism for reading raster data in MapServer).
It provides a powerful set of libraries for working with vector data:
GPSBabel converts waypoints, tracks, and routes between popular GPS receivers and mapping programs. It also has powerful manipulation tools for such data.
It contains extensive data manipulation abilities making it a convenient for server-side processing or as the backend for other tools. It does not convert, transfer, send, or manipulate maps. It processes data that may placed on a map, such as waypoints, tracks, and routes...
GPSBabel runs on Microsoft Windows 95, 98, ME, 2000, XP, and Vista plus POSIX OSes such as Linux, UnixWare, OpenServer, Solaris, FreeBSD, and OSX.
LIST of file formats: http://www.gpsbabel.org/capabilities.html
|Alan Map500 tracklogs (.trl)|
|Alan Map500 waypoints and routes (.wpr)|
|Brauniger IQ Series Barograph Download|
|Bushnell GPS Trail file|
|Bushnell GPS Waypoint file|
|Cambridge/Winpilot glider software|
|CarteSurTable data file|
|Cetus for Palm/OS|
|Columbus/Visiontac V900 files (.csv)|
|Comma separated values|
|CompeGPS data files (.wpt/.trk/.rte)|
|CoPilot Flight Planner for Palm/OS|
|cotoGPS for Palm/OS|
|Data Logger iBlue747 csv|
|Dell Axim Navigation System (.gpb) file format|
|DeLorme .an1 (drawing) file|
|DeLorme PN-20/PN-30/PN-40 USB protocol|
|DeLorme Street Atlas Plus|
|DeLorme Street Atlas Route|
|DeLorme XMap HH Native .WPT|
|DeLorme XMap/SAHH 2006 Native .TXT|
|DeLorme XMat HH Street Atlas USA .WPT (PPC)|
|Destinator Itineraries (.dat)|
|Destinator Points of Interest (.dat)|
|Destinator TrackLogs (.dat)|
|EasyGPS binary format|
|Embedded Exif-GPS data (.jpg)|
|Enigma binary waypoint file (.ert)|
|FAI/IGC Flight Recorder Data Format|
|Franson GPSGate Simulation|
|G7ToWin data files (.g7t)|
|Garmin 301 Custom position and heartrate|
|Garmin Logbook XML|
|Garmin MapSource - gdb|
|Garmin MapSource - mps|
|Garmin MapSource - txt (tab delimited)|
|Garmin POI database|
|Garmin Points of Interest (.gpi)|
|Garmin serial/USB protocol|
|Garmin Training Center (.tcx)|
|GeocachingDB for Palm/OS|
|Geogrid-Viewer ascii overlay file (.ovl)|
|Geogrid-Viewer tracklogs (.log)|
|GEOnet Names Server (GNS)|
|GlobalSat DG-100/BT-335 Download|
|Google Earth (Keyhole) Markup Language|
|Google Maps XML||yes|
|Google Navigator Tracklines (.trl)|
|GoPal GPS track log (.trk)|
|GPSBabel arc filter file|
|GpsDrive Format for Tracks|
|GPSPilot Tracker for Palm/OS|
|Holux (gm-100) .wpo Format|
|Holux M-241 (MTK based) Binary File Format|
|Holux M-241 (MTK based) download|
|Honda/Acura Navigation System VP Log File Format|
|HSA Endeavour Navigator export File|
|Humminbird tracks (.ht)|
|Humminbird waypoints and routes (.hwr)|
|IGN Rando track files|
|iGO2008 points of interest (.upoi)|
|Jelbert GeoTagger data file|
|Jogmap.de XML format|
|Kartex 5 Track File|
|Kartex 5 Waypoint File|
|Kompass (DAV) Track (.tk)|
|Kompass (DAV) Waypoints (.wp)|
|KuDaTa PsiTrex text|
|Magellan Explorist Geocaching|
|Magellan NAV Companion for Palm/OS|
|Magellan SD files (as for eXplorist)|
|Magellan SD files (as for Meridian)|
|Magellan serial protocol|
|MagicMaps IK3D project file (.ikt)|
|Map&Guide 'TourExchangeFormat' XML|
|Map&Guide to Palm/OS exported files (.pdb)|
|MapAsia track file (.tr7)|
|Mapopolis.com Mapconverter CSV|
|MapTech Exchange Format|
|Memory-Map Navigator overlay files (.mmo)|
|Microsoft AutoRoute 2002 (pin/route reader)|
|Microsoft Streets and Trips (pin/route reader)|
|Microsoft Streets and Trips 2002-2007|
|Motorrad Routenplaner (Map&Guide) .bcr files|
|MS PocketStreets 2002 Pushpin|
|MTK Logger (iBlue 747,...) Binary File Format|
|MTK Logger (iBlue 747,Qstarz BT-1000,...) download|
|National Geographic Topo .tpg (waypoints)|
|National Geographic Topo 2.x .tpo|
|National Geographic Topo 3.x/4.x .tpo|
|Navigon Mobile Navigator .rte files|
|NaviGPS GT-11/BGT-11 Download|
|NaviGPS GT-31/BGT-31 datalogger (.sbp)|
|NaviGPS GT-31/BGT-31 SiRF binary logfile (.sbn)|
|Naviguide binary route file (.twl)|
|Navitel binary track (.bin)|
|Navitrak DNA marker format|
|NetStumbler Summary File (text)|
|NIMA/GNIS Geographic Names File|
|NMEA 0183 sentences|
|Nokia Landmark Exchange|
|OpenStreetMap data files|
|PathAway Database for Palm/OS|
|PocketFMS flightplan (.xml)|
|PocketFMS waypoints (.txt)|
|Raymarine Waypoint File (.rwf)|
|Ricoh GPS Log File|
|See You flight analysis data|
|Skymap / KMD150 ascii files|
|SkyTraq Venus based loggers (download)|
|SkyTraq Venus based loggers Binary File Format|
|Sportsim track files (part of zipped .ssz files)|
|Suunto Trek Manager (STM) .sdf files|
|Suunto Trek Manager (STM) WaypointPlus files|
|Swiss Map 25/50/100 (.xol)|
|Tab delimited fields useful for OpenOffice, Ploticus etc.|
|Teletype [ Get Jonathon Johnson to describe|
|TomTom Itineraries (.itn)|
|TomTom Places Itineraries (.itn)|
|TomTom POI file (.asc)|
|TomTom POI file (.ov2)|
|TopoMapPro Places File|
|TrackLogs digital mapping (.trl)|
|U.S. Census Bureau Tiger Mapping Service|
|Universal csv with field structure in first line|
|Vcard Output (for iPod)|
|VidaOne GPS for Pocket PC (.gpb)|
|Vito Navigator II tracks|
|Vito SmartMap tracks (.vtt)|
|WiFiFoFum 2.0 for PocketPC XML|
|Wintec TES file|
|Wintec WBT-100/200 Binary File Format|
|Wintec WBT-100/200 GPS Download|
|Wintec WBT-201/G-Rays 2 Binary File Format|
|XAiOX iTrackU Logger|
|XAiOX iTrackU Logger Binary File Format|
|Yahoo Geocode API data|
Filter Encoding is an OGC standard which defines an XML encoding for filter expressions to allow for spatial and attribute querying: http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/filter
|Filter Function||Filter Name||Waypoints||Tracks||Routes|
|Points along an arc||arc||yes|
|Remove unreliable points with high hdop or vdop||discard||yes|
|Interpolate between trackpoints||interpolate||yes|
|Remove waypoints, tracks, or routes from processing.||nuketypes||yes|
|Remove points around polygon||polygon||yes|
|Remove points within relative distance||position||yes|
|Include only points within radius||radius||yes|
|Reverse a path||reverse||yes||yes|
|Manipulate track lists||track||yes|
|Transform waypoints, tracks, routes into each other||transform||yes||yes||yes|