Sometimes I have to put text on a path

Saturday, August 10, 2013

High resolution figures from Excel (300 dpi): the XL Toolbox, chart export

Scientific journals have explicit requirements for the submission of figures: Most commonly they require high-resolution TIFF files. Using the XL Toolbox, you can produce graphic files with Excel that meet the requirements of the majority of journals. The Toolbox produces these files directly from Excel; third-party illustrator software or virtual printer drivers are not needed.
You can even produce multipanel graphs by arranging charts and drawings on an Excel worksheet and then export them all together using the XL Toolbox. The layout will be preserved, and spreadsheet gridlines will not appear in your graphic file.

Thursday, July 25, 2013

Comsol and MRI/CT: the pain of working with complex geometries in Comsol; tutorials for comsol

The pain of working with complex geometries in Comsol!

Some questions :

I am trying to develop a quite simple, but realistic human head 3D model based on MR and CT images and use it as geometry in COMSOL Multiphysics.
My workflow is following: MRI/CT data --> segmentation through Simpleware/Amira/SPM --> STL-file --> COMSOL.
I have googled a lot, tried different settings while exporting to STL and then another different settings while importing in COMSOL, different settings of mesh -- everything is useless, still I have such issues as:1.) Errors in rendering the geometry.2.) Errors while meshing. Here [1] is an example of used model of white matter in STL format -- it seems to be good (MeshLab), what is wrong then, why I cannot create the mesh?3.) Troubles segmenting the CSF.4.) My current experiments involving only one tissue at a time, but which would be the best way to create a geometry consisting of all the subdomains at one time? I mean skin, skull, brain (or WM+GM) and CSF together as different subdomains in geometry.
   ONE answer:
ahhh the pain of working with complex geometries in Comsol.... 
I am working on a very similar problem to yours - but using heart. As Daniel suggested it is much easier to import the mesh into Comsol and then convert it back to a draw object in COmsol. 
1.) Errors in rendering the geometry.This is reallly annoying and time-consuming to resolve. You have to play around with the import options in Comsol. In particular -max angle between boundary elements (70 is a good start) -max angle between neighbouring boundary elements (5-10)-and remove small faces 0.01-0.04by trying out different combinations of these , eventually, you will be able to import the mesh and create a draw object without any rendereing issues.
My current experiments involving only one tissue at a time, ; but which would be the best way to create a geometry consisting of >> all the subdomains at one time?Simpleware allows you to simultaneously mesh a number of masks at the same time. You can then import the mesh, made up of the differnt tissue masks, into comsol. If import is successful Comsol will treat each mask as a seperate subdomain. Because Simpleware takes care of contacts between different masks I found this a much better approach than importing each mask individually into comsol - sometimes u'll have gaps between subdomains which are difficult to find. 
final tip.. make sure your segmented masks are at least 2 voxels wide in any direction (x,y,z,oblique). this helps reeduce the rendering errors u get in Comsol.

Simpleware should be able to output a COMSOL mesh file, either .mphtxt or .mphbin. You can then import the mesh into COMSOL which should work perfectly (File>Import mesh). You can't make changes to the geometry once it is in COMSOL. STL is not a good CAD or mesh file sharing format at all. You could also get a human head object by requesting this model from your COMSOL sales representitive:


How to use COMSOL batch to solve many files repeatedly without GUI?


Some "papers":

Diffusion Processes in Human Brain Using COMSOL Multiphysics, 2006; Cherubini, et al
Facoltà di Ingegneria Università Campus Biomedico di Roma, via Longoni, 83 - 00155
Rome, Italy. International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics - I.C.R.A, University of Rome ``La Sapienza'', I-00185 Rome, Italy.1,2
*Corresponding author:

Electrical Stimulation of Brain using a realistic 3D Human Head Model: Improvement of Spatial Focality

An MRI slice and the corresponding E-field induced in brain calculated with COMSOL Multiphysics.  By poular vote, this poster won the Best Poster Award at the COMSOL Conference 2008 Boston.
A. Datta, M. Elwassif, and M. Bikson
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of the CUNY, New York, NY, USA
We calculated the spatial distribution of the electric fields induced in the brain during transcranial current stimulation (TCS). The spatial focality obtained using ‘concentric-ring’ configurations is investigated using a realistic MRI derived 3D finite element model of the human head.

Two disc electrode configurations were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. The distant-bipolar configuration, which is comparable to commonly used TCS protocols, resulted in diffuse (un-focal) modulation. The reduced concentric-ring results in higher spatial focality at the expense of increased total surface current. Superficial cortical neurons may be thus selectively targeted using a concentric-ring configuration.

Absorbed Radiation (SAR) in the Human Brain
Model ID: 2190

Scientists use the SAR (specific absorption rate) to determine the amount of radiation that human tissue absorbs. This measurement is especially important for mobile telephones, which radiate close to the brain. The model studies how a human head absorbs a radiated wave from an antenna and the temperature increase that the absorbed radiation causes.
The increasing use of wireless equipment has also increased the amount of radiation energy to which human bodies are exposed. A common property that measures absorbed energy is the SAR value, (specific absorption rate) to determine the amount of radiation that human tissue absorbs.
The human head geometry is the same geometry (SAM Phantom) provided by IEEE, IEC and CENELEC from their standard specification of SAR value measurements. The original geometry was imported into COMSOL Multiphysics. In addition, the model samples some material parameters with a volumetric interpolation function that estimates the variation of tissue type inside the head.
This model studies how a human head absorbs a radiated wave from an antenna, and the temperature increase that this causes. This model requires the RF Module and the Heat Transfer Module.

Absorbed Radiation (SAR) in the Human Brain


Tutorial: Working between COMSOL 4.1 and MATLAB 2010b 

Ok, here is what I figured out in order to be able to take a COMSOL model, modify it in MATLAB and then reopen it in COMSOL for further work:

1. Launch COMSOL normally;
2. Launch MATLAB by using "COMSOL 4.1 with MATLAB";

- Saving your current COMSOL model into the COMSOL server:
a) File > Export Model to Server...
(Default settings: Server = localhost, Port = 2036)
Model = (Ex.: shell_diffusion)

(At that point, your COMSOL model is in the COMSOL server/buffer and is named "shell_diffusion")

- Loading your COMSOL model that you sent in the COMSOL server:
>> model = ModelUtil.model('shell_diffusion');
- Saving the file as a MATLAB .m-file:
>>, 'm'); (Ex.:'shell_diffusion2', 'm'); )
(The file would be saved by default in the current working folder)
- In order to save the file in a specific folder:
>>'C:\COMSOL_Models\shell_diffusion2', 'm');

(You now have created a MATLAB .m-file from a COMSOL file which you can edit and modify)
(I know, you could have just use the File > Save as Model M-File... option in COMSOL but I don't know how you could resend it to COMSOL that way)

- To save your modified model back into COMSOL:
>>'C:\COMSOL_Models\shell_diffusion3'); (No specific file extension will save it as a .mph COMSOL file)

(You now have your COMSOL file back which you can reopen in COMSOL)

-------------------------------tutorials (youtube) comsol 4.2
for absolute beginners

how to use an example


ex: 2D
explain "addd physics" (equations) without programming and math;
electromagnetics, frequency domain (light)

3) geometry
(2objectx->union->one object)
(grossir un objet; faire une N-copie d'un objet: array)

6)global parameters:

7/defining materials

8) meshing

Setting up RF-Physics

10)Simulation and Analysis

11) Analysis: Integration

12) Parameteric Sweep

13) Create Animation, Video, Movie

14) Extract Data from Simulation, Line Scan, Line Graph

---------------------- for "beginners" (quite complex geometry: nanoparticle and concentric spheres):
This tutorial is the first on a series of 3. Shows how to build a model step by step. Electromagnetic waves scattering off of a nano sphere. Use of work planes and revolve. Material properties .

part2 and 3:
Comsol Step by Step: Refraction, Total Internal Reflection (comsol 4.2)
cantilevel & comsol 4.2
part 1/5:
poisson equation/sphere/equation 2 forms for parameters:
Comsol Tutorial How to draw a coil
Postprocessing Tutorial: Creating a Plot in COMSOL Multiphysics
This video tutorial depicts the basics of how to generate plots and how to tweak the different visualization options in order to create the optimal display of results for your COMSOL model. A 2D plot group is created and multiple 2D plot types are superimposed so multiple variables can be displayed simultaneously. The plot types demonstrated here include: Surface, Arrow Surface, Contour, Deformation, and Height Expression.
How to 3D Print COMSOL Models

-------------------------------some video of models in neuroscience

COMSOL Multiphysics CoW Bloodflow simulation
This is a COMSOL model I created for my Biotransport Phenomena course. It simulates blood flow velocity through the Circle of Willis, an arterial network in the brain. It simulates multiple heartbeats at a HR of 60bpm.

Pyramidal Neurons Firing
MATLAB vector containing firing patterns is used as the input function for the COMSOL model.


Friday, July 5, 2013

Benin-City and Edo State in Nigeria

Now Benin City, is a city of population of 2millions and the capital of Edo State (3.5millions; 18.8km2, Min.183 m – Max. 610m) in southern Nigeria.

The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria.
 - 1180–1246 Eweka I
 -      Oba Ewuare (also Ewuare the Great) was the king of the Benin Empire from 1440 until 1473. Ewuare became king in a violent coup against his brother Uwaifiokun which destroyed much of Benin City. After the war, Ewuare rebuilt much of the city of Benin, reformed political structures in the kingdom, greatly expanded the territory of the kingdom, and fostered the arts and festivals. He left a significant legacy and is often considered the first King of the Benin Empire.
 - 1888–1914 Ovonramwen (exile 1897)
 - 1979– Erediauwa I (post-imperial)

 - 162590,000 km²

Around 1470, Ewuare changed the name of the state to Edo.

The Portuguese visited Benin City around 1478 (first explorer) -1485

Benin grew rich during the 16th and 17th centuries due to the slave trade with the Dutch and the Portuguese, as well as through the export of tropical products. The Bight of Benin's shore was part of the "Slave Coast", from where many West Africans were sold to slave traders who enticed them to sell able-bodied men into bonded servitude. In the early 16th century the Oba sent an ambassador to Lisbon, and the King of Portugal sent Christian missionaries to Benin. Some residents of Benin could still speak a pidgin Portuguese in the late 19th century.

Benin resisted signing a protectorate treaty with Britain through most of the 1880s and 1890s. However, after Benin discovered Britain's true intentions, eight unknowing British representatives, who came to visit Benin were killed. As a result a Punitive Expedition was launched in 1897. The British force, under the command of Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, razed and burned the city, destroying much of the country's treasured art and dispersing nearly all that remained. The stolen portrait figures, busts, and groups created in iron, carved ivory, and especially in brass (conventionally called the "Benin Bronzes") are now displayed in museums around the world.

The University of Benin, Benin City, the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, the Igbinedion University, Okada, and the Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, the Federal Polytechnic Auchi, Auchi are among the institutions of higher learning located in Edo State.

The land area now known as Edo state. Located in what is called south-south part of Nigeria or the Delta region, has a long history of civilization. It is partly what remains of the once powerful and famous imperial Benin kingdom one of the most powerful Africa Empires during 15th and 16th century. The body of water called the bight of Benin and Dahomey the former French colony now called Republic of Benin derived their names from the famous imperial Benin kingdom. According to Seo Ogbonmwan "they acknowledges that we were Benins and lived in Benin City long before them hence they visited the palace of our Oba in Benin City for consultation before their name change in 1975 from Republic of Dahomey to the People's Republic of Benin}".The Benin Empire authority and influence spreading to the coast of Benin republic, the Niger delta, the north west of Niger River and Onisha in the east. Benin City now serving as the headquarters of Oredo Local Government Area and the capital of Edo state was the power-house, seat of government and the capital of the ancient Empire .It's also the origin and ancestral home of all the descendants of ancient Benin kingdom. The Edo people pride themselves on their wealth of history and civilization. The arts of Benin Kingdom are global brand. Benin artifacts are among the most exquisite and coveted in world's history which represents the earliest civilization among black specifically Africans. The Benin Kingdom is the fourth earliest known civilization recorded by historians, archaeologists and anthropologists.

Although Benin Empire rise and fall like all great Empires, lost it imperial powers it survived attacks and occupations even when many could not. According to the eminent Benin writer Naiwu Osahon "The spendour of Edo civilization continues to this day to astound and exited the world.  Benin artifacts are among the most exquisite and coveted in world's history and the kingdom of Benin remains famous for its sophistication in social engineering and organization.  The Benins Obaship institution is still one of the world's most revered apart from being one of the most ancient". The ancient kingdom was able to bring together modernity and tradition in perfect harmony a formula that has worked magic for more than a century; After the fall to the British forces in 1897AD.
Exactly how,if,were or when the Edos migrated to this region is hard to establish. As prince E.Eweka put it "No one is really certain about the exact origin of the Edo people whose origin appears to have been lost in myths and legends of the distant past". What is not in doubt is that Linguistic evidence suggests that this land area have been occupied by The Igodomigodo {Edo-speaking groups} for thousands of years and Edo {Benins} civilization has grown over a period of some 6000 years if not more. The Edo language is part of the Kwa-Niger group of languages according to Linguist.

Edo State is the home and cradle of arts, culture and bronze casting as well as wood works in Africa. The state is showered encomiums for its splendour, excellence and creative art works in addition to its fame of being the tourists delight and investors destination. Tinged with the traditional Edo hospitality. The people are enlightened, warm and friendly ever willing to help. Edo state 18 Local Government Areas also have a wealth of both natural and cultural heritage. Strolling through picturesque historical villages or enjoying an excellent meal with tradition dishes are reason enough to come to the region.The state's sprawling tourism assets-ranging from cultural tourism, eco- tourism, historical tourism, sports tourism to economic tourism.

Benin kingdom/Edo State has become a year-round tourist attraction thanks to the many inland and riverside tourism option available to visitors. More than one hundred major festivals are celebrated in the state between September and March every year. Almost three hundred and sixty-five sunny days a year and an average temperature of 18 degrees are guarantee that each corner of the state will be wonderful to visit throughout the twelve months of the year. With an endless list of tourist activities you can be sure that your holiday to Benin kingdom/Edo state will be an unforgettable memories

do State Facts:
The State Name: Edo State of Nigeria {The Heart Beat Of The Nigeria}
State capital: Benin City
Government: Republic
Demonym: Edolite
Executive State Governor: Adams Aliu Oshiomhole
Deputy State Governor: Pius Egberanmwen Odubu
Chief Justice: Cromwell Osamwonyi Idahosa
Speaker of the House: Uyigwe Oghogho Igbe
Administrative Structure:Presidential/Federalism; Federal, State, Local Govt.
Land Area: 19,794 km2
Language: Edo, pidgin English, English {official}
Ethnic Configuration: Benins, Akoko-Edo, Etsako, Ishan and Owan
Population: 3,218332 {2006 National Census}
Electricity: 240v 50Hz
Weights & Measures: Metric
Currency: Naira
phone code: +234 {Mobile Phone Line} +234-52 {House Phone Line}
Religion: Predominantly Christians Followed By Traditional Religion And Islam
{Based On Freedom Of Worship And Separation Of State And Religion}
Date Created: 9th August 1963 Split into Edo & Delta on 27th August 1991
Vaccination: As in all tropical countries visitors to Edo state have to be vaccinated against yellow fever and meningitis. Malaria tablets are highly recommended.
Ancient Benin kingdom {Edo Nation}Facts:
Name: Benin Kingdom {Edo Nation}
Form Of Government : Monarchial System
Demonym: Benins
Brand : The Benin Arts {Global} Home to the oldest church in Nigeria
Royal Colour: Ododo {Red}
Kingdom Capital : Benin City
The Monarch & Spiritual Head : Oba Erediauwa
The Senior Queen{OIoi}: Esther Erediauwa
Second in Command & the kingdom Prime Minister : Chief S.U.Igbe
Crown prince : Eheneden Erediauwa {Edaiken of Uselu}
The Four cardinal Chiefs{Ikadele}:Igbe, Edebiri, Igho-Osagie & Ozibo-Esere
Head of Royal Defence Forces: Edogun (Ceremonial)
The Chief priest : Isekhure
Head of the Royal police Forces,Land and Infomation:Okavbiogbe{Ceremonial}
Head of the Royal Brozen Casters: Ine Nigun
Head.of keepers of royal regalia and wardrobe: Uwangue
Head of royal household and worker: Esere
Head of the Royal carvers: Eholo
Head of the Royal Bards: Odionwere
Language: Edo, pidgin English, English{Official}
Religion : Predominantly Evangelical Christians and Traditional Religion
Ethnic Configuration: ( The Igodomigodo {ancient}) (Edos)( Benins)
Land Area: 10,956 km2 (Estimate)
Population: 1.6 Million (Estimate)
Date Created : More than 6000 years (Linguistic evidence suggests)
Imperial period: 1440AD-1897AD
Post-Imperial: Fall to the British forces in 1897AD

(no list of publications)

private universities:

Tuesday, July 2, 2013


In the world, the first town is Tokyo, the second is Bombay and the third is Lagos
(in Nigeria; city =10millions and with "villages" around Lagos : 22millions;
Lagos has grown from about 300,000 in 1950 to these estimated values today then its is the fist town for the growth).

The population of Nigeria is between 160 (Banque mondial, 2011) and 180 millions.
Area : 923,768 km2 (32nd)

----------brief history

The people of Nigeria have an extensive history, and archaeological evidence shows that human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BC. The Benue-Cross River area is thought to be the original homeland of the Bantu migrants who spread across most of central and southern Africa in waves between the 1st millennium BC and the 2nd millennium AD.

Now Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world with a population of over 160-180 million. The country is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is one of the fastest growing in the world with the International Monetary Fund projecting growth of 9% in 2008 and around 10%/yr now...

The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th century respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement dates back to the 9th century.Ifẹ produced terracotta and bronze figures, and Ọyọ once extended from western Nigeria to Togo. The Kingdom of Benin is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further.

The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people started in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. It is one of the oldest kingdoms in Nigeria. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan; they trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. The oldest pieces of bronzes made out of the lost-wax process in West Africa were from Igbo Ukwu, a city under Nri influence.

The people traded overland with traders from North Africa for centuries.

In the 16th century, Spanish and Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin trade in Nigeria, in the port they named Lagos and in Calabar. The Europeans traded goods with the peoples of the coast. Soon they also negotiated for a portion of the existing African slave trade. Traditionally, peoples captured in war were made slaves by the conquerors. Usually they were taken back to the conquerors' territory, put to work and sometimes acculturated and eventually absorbed into the other culture. When the Europeans entered the trade, they transported slaves mostly to the Americas to work as laborers. Particularly in what became the United States,[citation needed] slavery became a permanent racial caste to which people of African descent were confined. The demands of the slave trade produced a greater market in slaves than had existed before. Nigerian ethnic groups were transported to the Americas and the Caribbean as part of the African diaspora of slavery.

Since this period, the link with Europe and USA is strong despite post-colonization.

  • Human behavioral ecology, the study of behavioral adaptations (foraging, reproduction, ontogeny) from the evolutionary and ecologic perspectives, (see behavioral ecology). Human adaptation, the study of human adaptive responses (physiologic, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses and variation.

GoogleServe 2013, google and help : more than 8,500 Googlers from 75+ offices participated in 500 projects

Every year in June comes a week where Googlers around the world stop reviewing code, ignore their inboxes and leave their cubicles behind to participate in GoogleServe, our global week of service. 

Not only was this our largest GoogleServe to date, but it was also one of the more unique, as many projects were designed to expand the notion of what it means to give back to the community. Here’s a glimpse at some of what we were up to this year:

  • In Thimphu, Bhutan, Googlers led a workshop about media literacy at the Bhutan Centre for Media and Democracy helping youth prepare to participate in shaping the future of this young democracy.
  • Googlers in Mountain View, Calif., created a bone marrow donation drive and partnered with the Asian American Donor Program to raise awareness about the need for more donors from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds.
  • Googlers from our Hyderabad, India office volunteered at Sri Vidhya's Centre for the Special Children, helping children who suffer from a wide range of cognitive disabilities to learn how to identify colors, write their own names, and prepare meals for themselves.
  • A team of Googlers walked the New York, N.Y., streets gathering information to improve AXS Map, a crowd-sourced platform for mapping wheelchair accessibility which is populated with data from Google Maps and Google Places APIs.
  • In Lagos, Nigeria, Googlers mentored entrepreneurs at Generation Enterprise, a small business incubator that equips at-risk youth to start sustainable businesses in slum communities.
  • In Randwick, Australia, Googlers taught computer and Internet skills with the Australian Red Cross Young Parents Program which aims to develop the capacities of young parents to live independently and to parent successfully.
  • A group of gourmet Googlers cooked a meal for families with children undergoing cancer treatment with Ronald McDonald House in London, U.K.
  • Googlers tutored and mentored youth in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with the Dignity For Children Foundation.
  • Googlers partnered with Un Techo Para Mi País to help build a new house for a family living below the poverty line in Bogota, Colombia.
  • In Dublin, Ireland, Google engineers taught youth how to program interactive stories and games with Scratch in partnership with Coder Dojo.


Wednesday, February 6, 2013

QtiPlot - Data Analysis and Scientific Visualisation

for the post in french:


Operating system Architecture Download File Required libraries Limitations
Linux x86 qtiplot- None - no Python scripting support*
Windows win32 qtiplot- None - saving to project files is disabled
- usable for maximum 10 minutes per session
Mac OS X Universal Python 2.5 - saving to project files is disabled
- usable for maximum 10 minutes per session
* limitation due to the fact that it is impossible to provide a generic Linux binary with Python support included

QtiPlot cross platform source code (no technical support provided):


Related software from ProIndep Serv Srl:

  • EmfEngine, a paint engine enabling the export of QPainter grafics to Windows Enhanced Metafiles (.emf)
  • QTeXEngine, a paint engine enabling the export of QPainter grafics to TeX
  • liborigin2, a library for reading OriginLab project files
  • libqti, a library providing Qt widgets and components


Biophotonics: health and air quality (optics and chemistry) in China and in the mega-cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and Tianjin, 27 provincial capitals, and three key industrial belts; levels of ozone and PM2.5 particles

China combats air pollution with tough monitoring rules

State media acknowledge role of online environmental activists in forcing government to act on poor air quality in cities

Smog down a main street of Linfen, in China's Shanxi province. 
Photograph: Peter Parks/AFP/Getty Images

Chinese authorities have set tougher rules to combat air pollution by ordering all major cities to monitor tiny particles that do serious damage to health. One of China's leading environmental activists, Ma Jun, greeted the change as a major step forward.

Surprisingly, given China's strict control of the internet, state media have acknowledged the change is partly in response to online environmental campaigners.

The national air quality rules were agreed at an executive meeting of the state council presided over by the premier, Wen Jiabao, on 1 March, a statement on its website said.

They order stricter air pollution monitoring standards this year in the mega-cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and Tianjin, 27 provincial capitals, and three key industrial belts: the Yangtze and Pearl river deltas, and Beijing's hinterland. Another 113 cities must adopt new standards next year, and all but the smallest cities by 2015.

To "help allay public concern over official air quality readings", levels of ozone and PM2.5 particles must be included. PM2.5 particulate matter is below 2.5 micrometres in diameter, or 1/30th the width of an average human hair, and easily penetrates lung tissue.

"This is a major step forward in terms of China's process to combat urban air pollution," said Ma Jun, director of the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs. "The prerequisite for mobilising our people is to let them know what is going on.

"It doesn't mean that the sky will turn blue automatically because at the end of the day we still need to cut off these emissions."

Following the announcement, more than a million – mostly positive – comments were posted on the Weibo micro-blogging service in under 24 hours. "Good news, applause," wrote Xu Xiaonian, a prominent economist. Others questioned whether the rules would be enforced.

In January, Beijing's environmental agency included PM2.5 particles in its calculations after months of postings from netizens mocking the discrepancy between officially clear days and the dense smog at their windows. Ma said social media had played an essential role in changing government policy last year.

State media also acknowledged the role of bloggers: "A stirring campaign on the country's social network websites since last autumn seemed to have gained a satisfying response from the country's policymakers," Xinhua news agency said.


The heavy smog and haze that shrouded Beijing on the weekend — pushing the pollution index to a record high — has been dubbed the "Beijing Cough" by the city's expat community, becoming increasingly popular with local media and Chinese.

Meanwhile, many other cities also witnessed smoggy weather on the weekend. On Saturday, levels of PM2.5 passed 300 micrograms per cubic meter in 33 of the 74 cities with systems equipped to monitor the particles. Face mask sales surged and hospitals crowded with sick people in cities across the country.

Modern toxicology research has shown that exposure to PM2.5 can lead to significantly increased death rates due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as increased cancer risk.

BEIJING - Beijing air pollution reaches dangerous levels.

not only in Beijung:

Beijing's air pollution reached dangerous levels yet again on Sunday, marking the third consecutive day of severe smog, municipal environmental authorities said.
The municipal meteorological station issued the city's first orange fog warning Sunday morning due to decreased visibility caused by the heavy smog.
Monitoring data released on Sunday showed that air quality indexes in most regions of Beijing had hit 500, the indexes' highest level.
"Beijing implemented its emergency response plan for hazardous pollution for the first time on Sunday," said Yu Jianhua, director of the air quality department under the municipal environmental protection bureau.
The plan, issued last year, includes multiple measures to combat and respond to hazardous levels of air pollution.
The plan calls for construction sites to limit construction activity that creates large amounts of dust, as well as asks industrial enterprises to reduce emissions, during hazardous pollution days.
The plan also requires municipal traffic authorities to limit government vehicle usage during smoggy days, with the goal of reducing such usage by 30 percent compared to normal days.
The plan also calls for education authorities to instruct schools to limit or completely stop outdoor activity during periods of heavy air pollution.
The municipal environmental monitoring center said readings for PM2.5, or airborne particles measuring less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter, had reached more than 700 micrograms per square meter at several monitoring stations in Beijing, reaching as high as 993 Saturday evening.
"These figures represent extremely bad pollution. Pollutants have gradually accumulated over the course of recent windless days, making the air quality even worse," said Zhu Tong, a professor from the college of environmental sciences and engineering at Peking University.
The pollution is expected to engulf Beijing until Wednesday, when wind will arrive to blow the smog away, according to a weather report from the meteorological station.
Related stories:
China issues yellow fog alert
Dense fog shrouds Beijing
Smoggy weather engulfs large areas of China
China pledges $56 billion to cut air pollution
Experts explore Beijing's air pollution


Wednesday, January 2, 2013

review of photographer's camera, digital cameras : "high-zoom",long zoom, super-zoom x16, x18, x20 and x24 and "x40", 12-24Mpix; hyper compact; GPS; video

"high-zoom", long zoom,  super-zoom x16, x18, x20, x24 and ( "x40" by sony)
 hyper compact
price<300 br="br">

-------------------------part of:

Canon PowerShot SX500 IS review

A 30x zoom, decent resolution and compact body for less than £300 makes the superzoom Canon PowerShot SX500 IS a tempting option. Read more
12 September 2012 by Nik Rawlinson
CNET UK > Reviews > Cameras and Camcorders > Compact Digital Cameras

4.0 stars out of 5

Samsung WB850F review

The Samsung WB850F's a superzoom compact with punchy output and built-in GPS and Wi-Fi. It's a travel photographer's camera that has it all. Read more
30 July 2012 by Nik Rawlinson
CNET UK > Reviews > Cameras and Camcorders > Compact Digital Cameras

4.0 stars out of 5


Fujifilm FinePix F770EXR review

The Fujifilm FinePix F770EXR is an impressive all-round compact camera with a long zoom, high resolution and built-in GPS. Read more
12 July 2012 by Nik Rawlinson
CNET UK > Reviews > Cameras and Camcorders > Compact Digital Cameras

4.0 stars out of 5

a 20x zoom, equivalent to 25-500mm on a regular 35mm camera, 
with a maximum aperture of between f/3.5 and f/5.3, depending on magnification.  

Keep it at ISO 3,200 or below though, and you can make use of every photosite on the 16-megapixel chip to produce 4,608x3,456-pixel shots.

Noisy zoom when shooting movies
 min: 200$; 180€

Nikon Coolpix S9300 review

The Nikon Coolpix S9300 is a high-resolution pocket camera with a long zoom, built-in GPS and plenty of automated shooting modes. Read more
12 July 2012 by Nik Rawlinson
CNET UK > Reviews > Cameras and Camcorders > Compact Digital Cameras

4.5 stars out of 5

Sony Cyber-shot DSC-HX20V review

A long zoom, high resolution and built-in photo location tagging makes this a great camera for travellers. Read more
15 May 2012 by Nik Rawlinson
4.0 stars out of 5

18.2-megapixel pocket snapper (4896x3672 pixels) has a sturdy chassis without any flex or give, 

 a 20x optical zoom 


40x optical zoom doesn't stand up to particularly close scrutiny 

Sony's sales literature claims that the HX20V features '40x Clear Image Zoom' which, the company explains, 'doubles [the] 20x optical zoom range to an effective 40x, filling the frame with distant subjects while maintaining superb image quality'.
While I can't argue with the first half of that statement, the second half didn't chime with what I discovered in my tests.
The HX20V's zoom is extraordinary for so small a camera, and a real asset. If you're looking for a travel camera and don't want to carry a chunky body and several lenses then the optical zoom here gives you the equivalent of 25-500mm in a regular 35mm camera.  

------------------------------"dirac" function: moon